Internal Rotation Lag Sign

 Internal Rotation Lag Sign

What is Internal Rotation Lag Sign?

How it’s Performed?

What does a positive Internal Rotation Lag Sign mean?

Sensitivity & Specificity

A study by Hertel et al.1 reported high sensitivity and specificity with this test:

Another study by Caroline A Miller 2 found that the specificities of the drop sign and internal rotation lag sign were 77% and 84%, respectively, and a sensitivity of 73% and 100%, respectively.

Related Anatomy

Subscapularis Muscle

subscapularis tendon
Subscapularis Tendon Anatomy


  1. Hertel R, Ballmer FT, Lombert SM, et al: Lag signs in the diagnosis of rotator cuff rupture. J Elbow Shoulder Surg Am 5:307–313, 1996. PMID: 8872929.
  2. Caroline A Miller, Gail A Forrester, Jeremy S Lewis: The validity of the lag signs in diagnosing full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff: a preliminary investigation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Jun. PMID: 18503815.
  3. Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System 3rd Edition.
  4. Dutton’s Orthopaedic Examination, Evaluation, And Intervention 3rd Edition.

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