Yergason Test

 Yergason Test

What is Yergason Test?

Yergason test is a functional test of the long head of the biceps tendon disorders. This test may be negative with partial or complete rupture of the supraspinatus tendon.

See Also: Speed Test of the Shoulder

How do you perform the Yergason Test?

Yergason Sign

What does a positive Yergason Sign mean?

Sensitivity & Specificity

A Prospective blinded study by Richard Holtby1 to assess the accuracy of the Speed’s and Yergason’s tests in detecting biceps pathology, he found that the sensitivity and specificity of Yergason test was as following:

Long Head of the Biceps Tendon

Another tests for the long head of biceps pathology include:

Nonspecific Biceps Tendon Test:

The patient holds the arm abducted in neutral rotation with the elbow flexed 90°. The examiner immobilizes the patient’s elbow with one hand and places the heel of the other hand on the patient’s distal forearm . The patient is then asked to externally rotate his or her arm against the resistance of the examiner’s hand.

Pain in the bicipital groove or at the insertion of the biceps suggests a tendon disorder. Pain in the anterolateral aspect of the shoulder is often a sign of a disorder of the rotator cuff , especially the infraspinatus tendon.

Nonspecific Biceps Tendon Test
Nonspecific Biceps Tendon Test

Abbott-Saunders Test:

Abbott-Saunders Test Demonstrates subluxation of the long head of the biceps tendon in the bicipital groove.

The patient’s arm is externally rotated and abducted about 120° with progressive internal rotation. The examiner slowly lowers the arm from this position. The examiner guides this motion of the patient’s arm with one hand while resting the other on the patient’s shoulder and palpating the bicipital groove with the index and middle fingers.

Pain in the region of the bicipital groove or a palpable or audible snap suggest a disorder of the biceps tendon (subluxation sign). An inflamed bursa (subcoracoid or subscapular bursa) can also occasionally cause snapping.

Abbott-Saunders Test
Abbott-Saunders Test

Snap Test:

Snap test tests for subluxation of the long head of the biceps tendon.

The examiner palpates the bicipital groove with the index and middle finger of one hand. With the other hand, the examiner grasps the wrist of the patient’s arm (abducted 80 to 90° and flexed 90° at the elbow ) and passively rotates it at the shoulder, first in one direction and then in the other.

Subluxation of the long head of the biceps tendon out of the bicipital groove will be detectable as a palpable snap.

Snap Test Shoulder
Snap Test

Hueter Sign:

The patient is seated with the arm extended at the elbow and the forearm in supination. The examiner grasps the posterior aspect of the patient’s forearm . The patient is then asked to flex the elbow against the resistance of the examiner’s hand.

In a rupture of the long head of the biceps tendon, the distally displaced muscle belly can be observed as a “ball” directly proximal to the elbow w hen the upper arm muscles contract.

Hueter Sign
Hueter Sign

Ludington Test

The patient sits or stands and is asked to place both hands behind the head, interlocking the fingers. In this position both arms are relaxed. The patient is then asked to alternately relax and contract the biceps muscle, while the examiner palpates the long head of the biceps tendon at the same time.

In comparing the two sides, if the examiner notes tenderness or subluxation of the tendon, this suggests an unstable tendon, tendinitis, or even a defect of the transverse ligament.

Ludington Test
Ludington Test

Lippman Test

The patient sits or stands and the examiner holds the arm and flexes it to 90°. The examiner now palpates the biceps tendon at the level of the bicipital groove, about 9 cm distal to the glenohumeral joint, and attempts to move it back and forth.

The test is positive if the patient feels pain along the course of the biceps tendon during this examination.

Lippman Test
Lippman Test

Related Anatomy

Biceps brachii Muscle

Biceps brachii Muscle had two heads (Short head and long head)

Reference

  1. Richard Holtby, Helen Razmjou: Accuracy of the Speed’s and Yergason’s tests in detecting biceps pathology and SLAP lesions: comparison with arthroscopic findings. 2004 Mar;20(3):231-6. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2004.01.008. PMID: 15007311.
  2. Campbel’s Operative Orthopaedics 13th Book
  3. Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System 3rd Edition.
  4. Dutton’s Orthopaedic Examination, Evaluation, And Intervention 3rd Edition.

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